Sounds like you're having the same trouble as discussed here...
I've seen a couple of other threads where people are having this problem with non T-Mobile phones.
It sounds like this has been a pain when it's really supposed to benefit our customers! The short code you mentioned in your post isn't the correct one to disable. Can you try #632# instead? Once you dial that short code, you can check the status by dialing #787# to make sure the block is disabled. Let me know if says disabled and if you're still getting a ton of calls blocked. Lastly, you can report calls that are legitimate here: T-Mobile - Report Improperly Identified Call so we can get that updated on our end.
Hi, did you try to check in the settings of the phone.